With the exception of the northeast, the region is very flat which provides significant management benefits.

Cows are not wasting energy walking up and down hills and lameness issues are reduced as the pressure on cows is not as great.

A key advantage of a flat terrain is the ability to capture surface water runoff from the farm and reuse that water in the irrigation system.

The majority of farms have recycle systems that not only improve irrigation efficiency but are very effective in making sure nutrients are retained on farm thus preventing nutrient loads entering natural waterways.

Recycle Systems
Recycle System
Effluent Ponds
Effluent Ponds

Dairy effluent systems can also be cost effectively integrated into the irrigation system that allows for the spread of effluent over a sufficient land area to remain sustainable. 

The ability of farms to easily and relatively cheaply implement engineering solutions to dairy effluent management greatly reduces the risk of any off farm impacts.